Children’s Orthopedics


Bipartite Patella in Children

A Patient’s Guide to Bipartite Patella in Children Introduction Bipartite patella is a congenital condition (present at birth) that occurs when the patella (kneecap) is made of two bones instead of a single bone. Normally, the two bones would fuse together as the child grows. But in bipartite patella, they […]


Transient Synovitis

A Patient’s Guide to Transient Synovitis of the Hip in Children Introduction Transient synovitis of the hip is an acute inflammatory condition of the inner lining of the hip. Transient means it is temporary and doesn’t last long. Transient synovitis is also known as toxic synovitis or irritable hip. This […]


Flat Feet

A Patient’s Guide to Congenital Flatfoot (Pes Planus) in Children Introduction Flatfeet (also known as pes planus) describes a condition in which the longitudinal (lengthwise) and/or medial (crosswise) arches of the foot are dropped down or flat. The entire bottom of the bare foot is in contact with the floor […]


Rotational Deformities in Children

A Patient’s Guide to Rotational Deformities in Children Introduction Rotational deformities of the legs and feet in children are often a cause of concern for parents. Most people think of the deformities as either toeing in or toeing out. The deformity actually comes from rotation of the femur and the […]


Limping in Children

A Patient’s Guide to Limping in Children Introduction Limping in a child is a concern. Limping in a child is never normal. It can be caused by many things, sometimes by something minor, like a blister or cut. The most common cause of a limp in young children is a […]


Nursemaid’s Elbow

A Patient’s Guide to Nursemaid’s Elbow Introduction Nursemaid’s elbow is a common injury in young children. It occurs most often around age two and rarely seen after age eight. Lifting the child up a step by the hand, giving the hand a sudden jerk, or pulling the child away from […]


Back Pain in Children

A Patient’s Guide to Back Pain in Children Introduction Until recently, a complaint of back pain in a child or adolescent was considered uncommon. It was usually associated with a certain condition such as tumor, curvature of the spine, a broken spinal bone, inflammation, or infection. However, more recently, reports […]


Blount’s Disease

A Patient’s Guide to Blount’s Disease in Children and Adolescents Introduction Bowlegs also known as tibia varum (singular) or tibia vara (plural) are common in toddlers and young children. The condition is called physiologic tibia varum when it’s a normal variation and the child will grow out of it. Most […]


Tarsal Coalition

A Patient’s Guide to Tarsal Coalition Introduction A Tarsal Coalition is a congenital condition that affects the bones of the foot in children and adolescents. Congenital means that the condition is present at birth and occurred during fetal development. A tarsal coalition occurs when the bones of the feet fail […]


Clubfoot

A Patient’s Guide to Clubfoot Introduction Clubfoot is a congenital condition that affects newborn infants. The medical term for clubfoot is Congenital Talipes Equinovarus. This condition has been described in medical literature since the ancient Egyptians. Congenital means that the condition is present at birth and occurred during fetal development. […]


Scoliosis

A Patient’s Guide to Scoliosis Introduction Scoliosis is a deformity in the spine that causes an abnormal C-shaped (one curve) or S-shaped curvature (two curves). The spine is not straight but curves to one or both sides. There are three types of scoliosis depending on when it develops. Infantile occurs […]


Panner’s Disease

A Patient’s Guide to Panner’s Disease of the Elbow Introduction Panner’s disease affects the dominant elbow of children, mainly boys, between the ages of five and 10. For unknown reasons, normal growth in the outer edge of the elbow is disrupted, which causes the small area of bone to flatten […]


Adolescent Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Elbow

A Patient’s Guide to Adolescent Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Elbow Introduction Young gymnasts and overhand athletes, particularly baseball pitchers and racket-sport players, are prone to an odd and troubling elbow condition. The forceful and repeated actions of these sports can strain the immature surface of the outer part of the […]


Sever’s Syndrome

A Patient’s Guide to Sever’s Syndrome Introduction Sever’s syndrome is a painful heel condition that affects growing adolescents between the ages of nine and 14. In this condition, the growing part of the heelbone grows faster than the tendon that connects on the back of the heel. This tightens up […]


Jumper’s Knee

A Patient’s Guide to Jumper’s Knee in Children and Adolescents Introduction When a child or adolescent complains of pain and tenderness near the bottom of the kneecap, the problem might be from jumper’s knee. Kids in sports that require a lot of kicking, jumping, or running are affected most. Doing […]


Osgood-Schlatter Disease

A Patient’s Guide to Osgood-Schlatter Lesion of the Knee Introduction An Osgood-Schlatter lesion involves pain and swelling in the small bump of bone on the front of the tibia (shinbone), right below the kneecap. It occurs in children and adolescents. The problem affects the area where bone growth occurs. Too […]


Perthes Disease

A Patient’s Guide to Perthes Disease of the Hip Introduction Perthes disease is a condition that affects the hip in children between the ages of four and eight. The condition is also referred to as Legg-Calve-Perthes disease in honor of the three physicians who each separately described the disease. In […]


Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

A Patient’s Guide to Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Introduction Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a condition that affects the hip in teenagers between the ages of 12 and 16 most often. Cases have been reported as early as age nine years old. In this condition, the growth center of […]


Septic Arthritis of the Hip in Children

A Patient’s Guide to Septic Arthritis of the Hip in Children Introduction Septic arthritis of the hip in children is a painful joint condition caused by a bacterial infection. Septic arthritis of the hip can occur at any age from newborn to older child. The infection is caused by different […]


Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Children

A Patient’s Guide to Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Children Introduction Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), previously known as congenital hip dysplasia is a common disorder affecting infants and young children. The change in name reflects the fact that DDH is a developmental process that occurs over time. […]